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Ukraine has called for the deal that relaxes Russia’s blockade of its Black Sea grain exports to be extended to other products such as metals after the first successful use of the route.

Taras Kachka, Ukraine’s trade negotiator and deputy economy minister, said he was hopeful the agreement between Ukraine and Russia allowing the resumption of grain traffic would hold and suggested that it could serve as a template for other commodities because traders and exporters “always test the limits”.

More than a dozen ships carrying grain are waiting to set sail from Ukrainian ports, while another ship is heading to the Ukrainian port of Chornomorsk.

Russian and Ukrainian military claims cannot be independently verified.

Other key maps and charts from the war

The shift in the conflict’s focus towards the Donbas region follows Russia’s failure to capture Kyiv during the first phase of the war. The Russians were thwarted by a combination of factors, including geography, the attackers’ blundering and modern arms — as well as Ukraine’s ingenuity with smartphones and pieces of foam mat.

Map showing Ukrainian counter-offensive area around Kyiv

The number of Ukrainians fleeing the conflict makes it one of the largest refugee crises in modern history.

Nearly 12mn people have fled the Ukraine conflict

Despite starting only a few months ago, the war has resulted in nearly twice as many people leaving Ukraine compared with those that fled the Iraq war, which spanned nine years.

In mid-March, an attack on a Ukrainian military base, which had been used by US troops to train Ukrainian soldiers, added to Russia’s increasingly direct threats that Nato’s continued support of Ukraine risked making it an enemy combatant in the war. On March 24, Nato agreed to establish four new multinational battle groups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia to add to troops in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

Map of Europe showing Nato member countries with locations of different military presences (multinational troops, air and sea forces, and other military)

Sources: Institute for the Study of War, Rochan Consulting, FT research

Cartography and development by Steve Bernard, Chris Campbell, Caitlin Gilbert, Emma Lewis, Joanna S Kao, Sam Learner, Ændra Rininsland, Niko Kommenda, Alan Smith, Martin Stabe and Neggeen Sadid. Based on reporting by Roman Olearchyk and John Reed in Kyiv, Guy Chazan in Lviv, Henry Foy in Brussels and Neggeen Sadid in London.

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